Variety of glassware made in Venice from the 13th century to the present. In the 15th century efforts were concentrated on the perfection of cristallo (clear glass that approximated rock crystal in appearance). By the 16th century Venetian glassmakers mastered techniques of adding colour and of removing the smoky tint produced by metal in the glass material. These and other secrets were guarded closely, and defecting workers were severely punished. But eventually many Venetian glassmakers did defect, and the techniques became common knowledge in France, Germany, The Netherlands, and England.
Ewer made of calcedonio, Venice, early 16th century; in the Museum für Kunsthandwerk,
—Courtesy of the Museum fur Kunsthandwerk, Frankfurt am Main, Ger.; photograph, Foto Marburg/Art Resource, New York
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