Vessel that carries blood to the heart. Except for the pulmonary veins, veins bear deoxygenated blood from capillaries, which converge into threadlike venules and then veins, finally emptying into the venae cavae (see cardiovascular system; vena cava). Blood moves through veins by contraction of the surrounding muscles. Backflow is prevented by valves in most veins' inner layer (tunica intima), which lacks the elastic membrane lining of arteries. The thin middle layer (tunica media) is mostly collagen fibres, and the thick outer layer (tunica adventitia) is mostly connective tissue. See also circulation; varicose vein.

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