Laboratory examination of a urine sample for clinical information. Abnormal concentrations of substances normally found in urine or presence of those that are not may indicate a disorder. Colour, specific gravity, or volume changes may reveal a specific disease or injury. Significant findings include high glucose and acetone in diabetes mellitus; various nitrogen compounds, pigments, amino acids, and their metabolic products in disorders of the enzymes that act on them; uric acid in gout; and urea, albumins, and globulins in kidney disease. Hormones may be evidence of pregnancy or endocrine imbalance. Urinalysis can also detect poisons and drugs.

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