Marxist ideology based on the theory of permanent revolution first expounded by Leon Trotsky. Trotsky believed that because all national economic development was affected by the laws of the world market, a revolution depended on revolutions in other countries for permanent success, a position that put him at odds with Joseph Stalin's socialism in one country. After Trotsky's exile in 1929, Trotskyists continued to attack the Soviet bureaucracy as Bonapartist (based on the dictatorship of one man). In the 1930s Trotskyists advocated a united front with trade unions against fascism. After Trotsky's murder (1940), Trotskyism became a generic term for various revolutionary doctrines that opposed the Soviet form of communism. See also Leninism, Marxism, Stalinism.
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