(1882) Secret agreement between Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. It provided that Germany and Austria-Hungary would support Italy if it was attacked by France, that Italy would similarly assist Germany, and that Italy would remain neutral if Austria-Hungary was attacked by Russia. The alliance advanced Otto von Bismarck's efforts to isolate France. Conflicts between Italy and Austria-Hungary over their interests in the Balkans led Italy to reach an understanding of neutrality with France in 1902, which effectively nullified Italy's pledge to the members of the Triple Alliance, though the alliance was renewed in 1907 and 1912. See also Austro-German Alliance.
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