Specialty steels that are produced in small quantities, contain expensive alloys, and are often sold only by the kilogram and by their individual trade names. They are generally very hard, wear-resistant, tough, nonreactive to local overheating, and frequently engineered to particular service requirements. They must be dimensionally stable during hardening and tempering. They contain strong carbide formers such as tungsten, molybdenum, vanadium, and chromium in different combinations, and often cobalt or nickel to improve high-temperature performance. See also high-speed steel.
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