French government (1870–1940). After the fall of the Second Empire and the suppression of the Paris Commune, the new Constitutional Laws of 1875 were adopted, establishing a regime based on parliamentary supremacy. Despite its series of short-lived governments, the Third Republic was marked by social stability (except for the Alfred Dreyfus affair), industrialization, and establishment of a professional civil service. It ended with the fall of France to the Germans in 1940. Presidents of the Third Republic included Adolphe Thiers (1871–73), Patrice de Mac-Mahon (1873–79), Jules Grévy (1879–87), Sadi Carnot (1887–94), Félix Faure (1895–99), Émile Loubet (1899–1906), Armand Fallières (1906–13), Raymond Poincaré (1913–20), Alexandre Millerand (1920–24), Gaston Doumergue (1924–31), and Albert Lebrun (1932–40). Other notable leaders included Léon Blum, Georges Boulanger, Aristide Briand, Georges Clemenceau, Édouard Daladier, Jules Ferry, Léon Gambetta, Édouard Herriot, Jean Jaurès, Pierre Laval, Philippe Pétain, and Paul Reynaud.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise.For the full entry on Third Republic, visit Britannica.com.
What made you look up Third Republic? Please tell us what you were reading, watching or discussing that led you here.
Take our visual vocab quiz
A quick quiz about stuff worth knowing
The commonly misspelled words quiz
The Vocab Quiz Game for iPhone & iPad
"Incredibly fun and addictive. And informative!" User Review, iTunes