Machine used in materials science to determine the properties of a material. Machines have been devised to measure tensile strength, strength in compression, shear, and bending (see strength of materials), ductility, hardness, impact strength (see impact test), fracture toughness, creep, and fatigue. Standardization of machines and tests is the province of the International Organization for Standardization, American National Standards Institute, British Standards Institution, and many governmental bodies. Many industries have special-purpose testing machines for the materials they use.
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