Pottery fired at a high temperature (about 2,200 °F, or 1,200 °C) until vitrified (made glasslike and impervious to liquid). Because stoneware is nonporous, glaze is applied only for decoration. Stoneware originated in China c. 1400 BC and was exported to Europe in the 17th century. This red to dark-brown stoneware was copied in Germany, England, and the Netherlands. See also bone china, porcelain.
Salt-glazed stoneware Bartmannkrug with applied relief decoration, Cologne, c. 1540;
—Courtesy of the Victoria and Albert Museum, London; photograph, Wilfrid WalterEB Inc.
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