(fl. 7th–13th centuries) Maritime and commercial kingdom in the Malay Archipelago. It originated on the island of Sumatra and soon came to control the Strait of Malacca. Its power was based on its control of international sea trade; it had relations with other island states and with China and India. It was also a centre for Mahayana Buddhism and a stopping place for Chinese pilgrims traveling to India. It was overcome by forces of the Cola dynasty in 1025 and lost power gradually thereafter.
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