Study of soils and their utilization, especially in planning foundations for structures and highways. How the soil of a given site will support the weight of structures or respond to movement in the course of construction depends on a number of properties (e.g., compressibility, elasticity, and permeability). Examination techniques include trench-digging, boring, and pumping samples to the surface with water. Seismic testing and measurement of electrical resistance also yield helpful information. In road construction, soil mechanics helps determine which type of pavement (rigid or flexible) will last longer. The study of soil characteristics is also used to choose the most suitable method for excavating underground tunnels. See also foundation, settling.
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