Russian political party. The ideological heir to the 19th-century Narodniks (Populists), it was founded in 1901 by agrarian socialists and appealed mainly to the peasantry. It was the principal alternative to the Russian Social-Democratic Workers' Party in the early 20th century. It relied on terrorist tactics and carried out hundreds of political assassinations. By 1917 it was Russia's largest socialist group; its members included Aleksandr Kerensky, Viktor Chernov, and Catherine Breshkovsky. The party split after the Russian Revolution of 1917, and its radical wing joined the Bolshevik government. It was suppressed by Vladimir Lenin after the Russian Civil War.
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