In building construction, a thin, curved plate structure shaped to transmit applied forces by compressive, tensile, and shear stresses that act in the plane of the surface. They are usually constructed of concrete reinforced with steel mesh (see shotcrete). Shell construction began in the 1920s; the shell emerged as a major long-span concrete structure after World War II. Thin parabolic shell vaults stiffened with ribs have been built with spans up to about 300 ft (90 m). More complex forms of concrete shells have been made, including hyperbolic paraboloids, or saddle shapes, and intersecting parabolic vaults less than 0.5 in. (1.25 cm) thick. Pioneering thin-shell designers include Felix Candela and Pier Luigi Nervi.
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