biographical name

(died January 681 BC) King of Assyria (r. 705/704–681 BC), son and successor of Sargon II. Between 703 and 689 he undertook six campaigns against Elam (southwestern Iran), which was stirring up Chaldean and Aramaean tribes in Babylonia; Babylon was sacked during the last campaign. He dealt firmly with an Egyptian-backed rebellion in Palestine in 701, sparing Jerusalem after receiving payment of a heavy indemnity. He rebuilt the city of Nineveh, around which he planted fruit trees and exotic plants, including cotton, building extensive canals to bring water to the plantations. He devised less laborious methods of bronze casting and improved methods of raising water from wells. He was assassinated by a son during a rebellion.

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