(1817–18, 1835–42, 1855–58) Three conflicts between the U.S. and the Seminole Indians of Florida. The first began when U.S. authorities tried to recapture runaway slaves living among Seminole bands. After U.S. forces seized Spanish-held Pensacola and St. Marks, Spain ceded its Florida territory under the Transcontinental Treaty (1819). The second conflict followed the refusal of most Seminoles to relocate under the Indian Removal Act. Led by Osceola, the Seminole warriors hid in the Everglades and used guerrilla tactics to defend their land; about 2,000 U.S. soldiers were killed in the prolonged fighting. After Osceola was captured, resistance declined and most Seminoles agreed to emigrate west. The third conflict arose from efforts to oust the remaining Seminoles from Florida.
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