Japan's military after World War II. In Article 9 of Japan's postwar constitution, the Japanese renounced war and pledged never to maintain land, sea, or air forces. The rearming of Japan in the 1950s was therefore cast in terms of self-defense. In 1950 a small military force called the National Police Reserve was created; this became the National Safety Force in 1952 and the Self-Defense Force in 1954. Ostensibly it was never to be used outside Japan or its waters; consequently, Self-Defense Force participation in UN peacekeeping missions or relief work has sparked vigorous debate in Japan and abroad, especially among nations that were victims of Japanese aggression in World War II.
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