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Any member of a Germanic people who lived along the Baltic coast in ancient times and later migrated west as far as the British Isles. The Saxons became pirates in the North Sea during the decline of the Roman empire, and in the early 5th century they spread through northern Germany and along the coasts of Gaul and Britain. They fought Charlemagne (772–804) before being incorporated into the Frankish kingdom, and they settled Britain along with other Germanic invaders, including the Angles and the Jutes.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on Saxon, visit Britannica.com.