Ancient city, Anatolia. Located east of Smyrna (modern Izmir), it was the chief city and capital of the kingdom of Lydia from the 7th century BC and the first city where gold and silver coins were minted. It fell to the Persians c. 546 BC and passed to the Romans in 133 BC. Destroyed by an earthquake in AD 17, it was rebuilt and remained one of the great cities of Anatolia until the later Byzantine period. It was obliterated by Timur in 1402. Its ruins include the ancient Lydian citadel, but excavations have uncovered more remains of the Hellenistic and Byzantine city than of the ancient Lydian town.
Variants of SARDIS
Sardis or Sardes
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