Santiago de Cuba
Seaport city (pop., 2002: 423,392), eastern Cuba. The second largest city in Cuba, it was founded in 1514 and moved to its present site in 1522. It commanded a strategic location on the northern Caribbean Sea in the early colonial period and was the capital of Cuba until 1589. It was a focal point of the Spanish-American War, and in 1898 the entire Spanish fleet was destroyed near its coast. In 1953 it was the scene of Fidel Castro's attack against the Moncada army barracks. It is the centre of an agricultural and mining region and exports copper, iron, manganese, sugar, and fruit.
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