Samuel (of Mount Carmel and of Toxeth), Herbert Louis Samuel, 1st Viscount biographical name
(born Nov. 6, 1870, Liverpool, Eng.died Feb. 5, 1963, London) British politician. A social worker in the London slums, he entered the House of Commons in 1902, where he effected legislation that established juvenile courts and the Borstal system for youthful offenders. As postmaster general (1910–14, 1915–16), he nationalized the telephone system. Appointed the first British high commissioner for Palestine (1920–25), he improved the region's economy and promoted harmony among its religious communities. He presided (1925–26) over the royal commission on the coal industry and helped to settle the general strike of May 1926. He led the Liberal Party in the House of Commons (1931–35), and after being made viscount (1937), he was leader of the party in the House of Lords (1944–55). As president of the British (later Royal) Institute of Philosophy (1931–59), he wrote popular works such as Practical Ethics (1935) and Belief and Action (1937).
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