Noble Scottish family prominent in the 16th century. Its members included Lord Patrick Ruthven (c. 1520–1566), provost of Perth (1553–66) and Protestant privy councillor to Mary, Queen of Scots. He helped arrange her marriage to Lord Darnley (1565) and led the plot to murder her secretary, David Riccio, after which he fled to England. His son William Ruthven (1541?–1584) also took part in the plot against Riccio and became lord high treasurer (1571). He was the chief conspirator in the raid of Ruthven that in 1582 captured the boy king James VI (later James I of England), after which Ruthven was pardoned but later beheaded for treason. His son John Ruthven, earl of Gowrie (1577?–1600), continued the family tradition of intrigue by offering to serve Queen Elizabeth I, then leading the opposition to James VI. In the so-called Gowrie conspiracy, Ruthven was killed in his house in Perth, possibly in an abortive attempt to take James VI prisoner.
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