(June 18, 1887) Secret agreement between Germany and Russia. Arranged by Otto von Bismarck after the collapse of the Three Emperors' League, it provided that each party would remain neutral if either became involved in a war with a third nation, and that this would not apply if Germany attacked France or if Russia attacked Austria. Germany acknowledged the Russian sphere of influence in Bulgaria. After the treaty was not renewed in 1890, a Franco-Russian alliance began to take shape.
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