geographical name

City (pop., 2005 est.: urban agglom., 1,770,000), Punjab province, northern Pakistan, just southwest of Islamabad. In ancient times, the locality was included in the Achaemenian Persian Empire. The ruins of the ancient city of Taxila are located nearby to the northwest. Strategically located, it controls the routes to the Kashmir region and was the site of an important British military station. The former capital of Pakistan (1959–69), Rawalpindi is the headquarters of Pakistan's army and an administrative, commercial, and industrial centre. Wheat, barley, corn (maize), and millet are the chief crops grown in the area. Mankial, south of the city, is the site of a Buddhist stupa dating to the 3rd century BC.

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