Treatment of psychological, emotional, or behaviour disorders through interpersonal communications between the patient and a trained counselor or therapist. The goal of many modern individual and group therapies is to establish a central relationship of trust in which the client or patient can feel free to express personal thoughts and emotions and thus gain insight into his condition and generally share in the healing power of words. Such therapies include psychoanalysis and its variants (see Alfred Adler; Carl Gustav Jung), client-centred or nondirective psychotherapy, Gestalt therapy (see Gestalt psychology), play and art therapy, and general counseling. In contrast, behaviour therapy focuses on modifying behaviour by reinforcement techniques without concerning itself with internal states.

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