(1932) Bloodless coup that put an end to absolute monarchy in Siam (Thailand) and initiated the Constitutional Era. The coup was headed by the Promoters, a group that included members of the Thai elite, noted intellectuals, and disaffected army officers. Their first constitution, the Temporary Constitution, stripped the king of power and put it in the hands of the Promoters themselves. The Permanent, or December, Constitution restored some of the royal prestige and dignity and introduced some liberal, Western-style reforms. None of Thailand's subsequent constitutions effectively limited political power or provided a means by which political contests could be decided. See also Luang Phibunsongkhram; Pridi Phanomyong.
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