Process involved in finding a solution to a problem. Many animals routinely solve problems of locomotion, food finding, and shelter through trial and error. Some higher animals, such as apes and cetaceans, have demonstrated more complex problem-solving abilities, including discrimination of abstract stimuli, rule learning, and application of language or languagelike operations. Humans use not only trial and error but also insight based on an understanding of principles, inductive and deductive reasoning (see deduction; induction; and logic), and divergent or creative thinking (see creativity). Problem-solving abilities and styles may vary considerably by individual.
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