Movement in Western painting that represented both an extension of Impressionism and a rejection of its limitations. The term was coined by Roger Fry for the works of Paul Cézanne, Georges Seurat, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and others. Most of these painters first pursued Impressionism, a style based, in its strictest sense, on the objective recording of nature in terms of the fugitive effects of colour and light. The Post-Impressionists rejected this aim in favour of more ambitious expression, admitting their debt, however, to the pure, brilliant colours of Impressionism, its freedom from traditional subject matter, and its technique of defining form with short brushstrokes of broken colour. Each painter in the movement pursued unique, personal subject matter and, while sharing stylistic goals with the other Post-Impressionists, had a personal form of expression. For example, Cézanne abandoned the Impressionists' virtuoso depiction of evanescent light effects in order to pursue his preoccupation with the underlying structures of natural forms and the problem of unifying surface patterns with spatial depth. Both Gauguin and van Gogh rejected the indifferent objectivity of Impressionism in favour of a more personal, spiritual expression. The Post-Impressionists often exhibited together but, unlike the Impressionists, who were a close-knit and convivial group, they painted mainly alone. In general, Post-Impressionism led away from a naturalistic approach and toward the two major movements of early 20th-century art that followed it: Cubism and Fauvism. See also Neo-Impressionism.
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