geographical name

City (pop., 2000: 1,321,045), capital of Arizona, U.S. It is located on the Salt River. The river valley was occupied as early as AD 1300 by prehistoric Indians, now known as the Hohokam culture, who disappeared in the early 15th century. A village was founded on the site in 1867 and incorporated as a city in 1881. It became the territorial capital in 1889 and state capital in 1912. There was widespread expansion after World War II, with the population quadrupling between 1950 and 1960. Phoenix occupies a semiarid valley surrounded by mountains and irrigated fields; its economy is based on farming, manufacturing, mining, and tourism.

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