Penderecki, Krzysztof biographical name
(born Nov. 23, 1933, Debica, Pol.) Polish composer and conductor. He studied composition at the Kraków Conservatory and later served as its director (1972–87). His early music (1960–74) involved dense note clusters and unorthodox sounds, and he developed his own musical notation to convey the desired effects, resulting in vivid works that attracted international attention, including Threnody for the Victims of Hiroshima (1960), Stabat Mater (1962), the St. Luke Passion (1963–66), and the opera The Devils of Loudun (1968). After 1975 he embraced a more traditional approach with works such as the opera Paradise Lost (1978), and concerti for violin (1977), cello (1982), and viola (1983). His later works include the opera Ubu Rex (1990–91) and the choral work Phaedra (2002).
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