Ancient Egyptian city. Located on what was once the easternmost mouth of the Nile River, its ruins lay southeast of modern Port Said. Beginning in the 26th dynasty (c. 7th century BC), it was the main frontier fortress facing Palestine and was a customs post for Asian goods. In 525 BC the Achaemenian Persians, under Cambyses II, defeated the pharaoh Psamtik III there. In Roman times it was a station on the trade route to the Red Sea; its ruins date from the Roman period.
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