Document issued by Tsar Nicholas II in October 1905. In response to the unrest caused by the Russian Revolution of 1905 and on the advice of his minister Sergey Witte, Nicholas promised to guarantee civil liberties and establish a popularly elected Duma. The manifesto satisfied the moderate revolutionaries, and further unrest was crushed. In 1906 the Fundamental Laws were established to serve as a constitution and to create the Duma. The Duma was in fact given only a limited voice in the government, and the civil rights actually granted were far less substantial than those promised by the manifesto.
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