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Island territory (pop., 2006: 1,863) of Australia, southwestern South Pacific Ocean. Located midway between New Caledonia and New Zealand, the island has an area of 13 sq mi (34 sq km). Discovered by Capt. James Cook in 1774, it became a British penal colony (1788–1814, 1825–55). The population of Pitcairn Island was moved here in 1856, and many residents of Norfolk Island are descended from crew members of HMS Bounty. Of volcanic origin, it has generally rugged terrain with abundant Norfolk Island pine. The major industry is tourism.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on Norfolk Island, visit Britannica.com.