Device for converting sound waves into electric power that has wave characteristics essentially similar to those of the sound. By proper design, a microphone may be given directional characteristics so that it will pick up sound primarily from a single direction, from two directions, or more or less uniformly from all directions. In addition to their use in telephone transmitters, microphones are most widely applied in hearing aids, sound-recording systems (principally magnetic and digital tape recorders), and public-address systems.
In a moving-coil microphone, sound waves cause the diaphragm to vibrate, and this oscillating
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