Michael Cerularius biographical name
(born c. 1000, Constantinopledied Jan. 21, 1059, Madytus, near Constantinople) Greek Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople (1043–58). He thwarted Constantine IX's efforts to ally the Byzantine and Roman empires against the Normans, and he closed Latin churches in Constantinople that refused to use the Greek language and liturgy (1052). When negotiations broke down between Michael and the papal legates sent by Leo IX, each side excommunicated the other, initiating the Schism of 1054. Michael forced Constantine to support the schism, but in 1058 he was exiled by Constantine's successor.
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