Marshall, John biographical name
(born Sept. 24, 1755, near Germantown, Va.died July 6, 1835, Philadelphia, Pa., U.S.) U.S. patriot, politician, and jurist. In 1775 he joined a regiment of minutemen and served as a lieutenant under Gen. George Washington in the American Revolution. After his discharge (1781), he served in the Virginia legislature and on Virginia's executive council (1782–95), gaining a reputation as a leading Federalist. He supported ratification of the U.S. Constitution at the state's ratifying convention. He was one of three commissioners sent to France in 1797–98 (see XYZ Affair); he later served as secretary of state (1800–01) under Pres. John Adams. In 1801 Adams named Marshall chief justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, a post he held until his death. He participated in more than 1,000 decisions, writing 519 himself. During his tenure, the Supreme Court set forth the main structure of the government; its groundbreaking decisions included Marbury v. Madison, which established judicial review; McCulloch v. Maryland, which affirmed the constitutional doctrine of implied powers; the Dartmouth College case, which protected businesses and corporations from much government regulation; and Gibbons v. Ogden, which established that states cannot interfere with Congress's right to regulate commerce. Marshall is remembered as the principal founder of the U.S. system of constitutional law.
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