Metallic chemical element, one of the transition elements, chemical symbol Mn, atomic number 25. It is a silvery white, hard, brittle metal, widely distributed in Earth's crust in combination with other elements. Nodules rich in manganese occur in huge quantities on the seafloor, but no economical way to mine them has been devised. More than 95% of the manganese produced is used in iron and steel alloys and much of the rest in nonferrous aluminum and magnesium alloys to improve their corrosion resistance and mechanical properties. Manganese compounds, in which it has various valences, are used in fertilizers and textile printing and as reagents and raw materials. Potassium permanganate is used for disinfecting, deodorizing, and bleaching and as a reagent in analysis. Manganese is essential to plants for growth and to higher animals to promote the action of many enzymes.
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