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Chemical element, lightest alkali metal, chemical symbol Li, atomic number 3. It is soft, white, lustrous, and very reactive, forming compounds in which it has valence 1. The metal is used in certain alloys, as a coolant in nuclear reactors, and (because of its reactivity) as a reagent, scavenger, and rocket fuel. Lithium hydride is used as a source of hydrogen; lithium hydroxide is used as an additive in storage batteries and to absorb carbon dioxide. Halides (seehalogen) of lithium are used as moisture absorbents, and lithium soaps are used as thickeners in lubricating greases. Lithium carbonate is an important drug for treating depression and bipolar disorder.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on lithium, visit Britannica.com.