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In mathematics, the process of finding a straight line that closely fits a curve (function) at some location. Expressed as the linear equation y = ax + b, the values of a and b are chosen so that the line meets the curve at the chosen location, or value of x, and the slope of the line equals the rate of change of the curve (derivative of the function) at that location. For most curves, linear approximations are good only very close to the chosen x. Yet much of the theory of calculus, including the fundamental theorem of calculus and the mean-value theorem for derivatives, is based on such approximations.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on linear approximation, visit Britannica.com.
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