Johnston, Joseph E(ggleston)

Johnston, Joseph E(ggleston)

biographical name

(born Feb. 3, 1807, near Farmville, Va., U.S.—died March 21, 1891, Washington, D.C.) U.S. Army officer. He graduated from West Point and served in the Mexican War. At the start of the American Civil War he resigned his commission to serve the Confederacy. Appointed brigadier general, he won the first Confederate victory at the Battle of Bull Run. He was promoted to general but remained at odds with Confederate Pres. Jefferson Davis. He defended Richmond in the Peninsular Campaign and was badly wounded at the Battle of Fair Oaks (1862). In 1863 he was sent to conduct the Vicksburg Campaign. His order to evacuate the city was countermanded by Davis, but Johnston was blamed for the city's fall. As commander of the Army of the Tennessee, he avoided defeat as the Union advanced toward Atlanta, Ga., but he was removed from command for failing to defeat the invaders. Restored to duty in 1865, he was forced to surrender to William T. Sherman.

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