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John XXIII, 1963—Keystone
(born Nov. 25, 1881, Sotto il Monte, Italydied June 3, 1963, Rome; beatified Sept. 3, 2000; feast day October 11) Pope (1958–63). He studied theology in Rome, was ordained a priest in 1904, and held a variety of church offices. In 1944 he was named papal nuncio to newly liberated France, where he successfully revived sympathy for the Vatican. Made a cardinal in 1953, he was elected pope after the death of Pius XII (1939–58). Because of his advanced age, he was expected to be little more than a caretaker in the office, but instead he became the major reforming pope of the century. Eager to lead the church into the modern era, he called the Second Vatican Council in 1962, inviting Eastern Orthodox and Protestant observers to join Catholic delegates. He also sought to repair relations with the Jews. The council went on to make major reforms in Catholic liturgy and administration, though John died before its conclusion. An energetic advocate of world peace, he was one of the most popular popes in history. In 2000 he was beatified by John Paul II (1978–2005).
Variants of JOHN XXIII
John XXIII orig. Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on John XXIII, visit Britannica.com.
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