Island (pop., 2005 prelim.: 127,679,800), Indonesia. Lying southeast of Sumatra, it is Indonesia's fourth largest island, and it contains more than half of the country's population. Its area, including offshore islands, is 49,255 sq mi (127,570 sq km). The capital of Java and of Indonesia is Jakarta. The island's highest point is Mount Semeru, an active volcano reaching an elevation of 12,060 ft (3,676 m). It is inhabited by three major ethnic groups: the Javanese (who constitute the bulk of the population), the Sundanese, and the Madurese. The fossilized remains of Homo erectus, or “Java man,” indicate that the island was occupied some 800,000 years ago. Indian traders began arriving in the 1st century AD, bringing Hindu influences. The Majapahit dynasty was founded in eastern Java in 1293; it fell early in the 16th century when Muslim kingdoms arose. In 1619 the Dutch East India Company took control of Batavia (Jakarta) and extended its influence. Ruled by the Dutch until the 1940s when it was occupied by Japan, it became part of newly independent Indonesia in 1950.

Variants of JAVA

Java or Djawa or Jawa

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