In Islam, a list of authorities who have transmitted accounts of the teachings or actions of Muhammad, one of the Companions of the Prophet, or of a later authority. Each of these accounts, known as Hadith, includes an isnad that gives the chain of authorities by which it has been handed down, using the form, It has been related to me by A on the authority of B on the authority of C on the authority of D that Muhammad said
. See also 'ilm al-hadith.
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