Any method by which food is protected against spoilage by oxidation, bacteria, molds, and microorganisms. Traditional methods include dehydration, smoking, salting, controlled fermentation (including pickling), and candying; certain spices have also long been used as antiseptics and preservatives. Among the modern processes for food preservation are refrigeration (including freezing), canning, pasteurization, irradiation, and the addition of chemical preservatives.
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