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(born Oct. 14, 1784, El Escorial, Spaindied Sept. 29, 1833, Madrid) King of Spain (1808, 1813–33). He became king briefly in 1808 after the French invasion of Spain forced the abdication of his father, Charles IV. Napoleon soon replaced him as king with Joseph Bonaparte and held Ferdinand in France (1808–13). The Spanish populace rose against the French invaders in the name of Ferdinand, who became known as the Desired. In 1812 independent Spaniards adopted a liberal constitution, which Ferdinand overthrew on his return as king in 1813 to rule in an absolutist style. His reign saw the loss of most of Spain's possessions in the Americas. He abolished the Salic Law of Succession to allow his daughter (the future Isabella II) instead of his brother (Don Carlos [1788–1855]) to succeed him, which triggered the opposition movement, Carlism.
Variants of FERDINAND VII
Ferdinand VII Spanish Fernando
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on Ferdinand VII, visit Britannica.com.