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Structure in which work is organized to meet the need for production on a large scale usually with power-driven machinery. In the 17th–18th century, the domestic system of work in Europe began giving way to larger units of production, and capital became available for investment in industrial enterprises. The movement of population from country to city also contributed to change in work methods. Mass production, which transformed the organization of work, came about by the development of the machine-tool industry. With precision equipment, large numbers of identical parts could be produced at low cost and with a small workforce. The assembly line was first widely used in the U.S. meat-packing industry; Henry Ford designed an automobile assembly line in 1913. By mid-1914, chassis assembly time had fallen from 12 man-hours to 93 man-minutes. Some countries, particularly in Asia and South America, began industrializing in the 1970s and later. See alsoAmerican System of manufacture.
This entry comes from Encyclopædia Britannica Concise. For the full entry on factory, visit Britannica.com.