Building designed to prevent total collapse, preserve life, and minimize damage in case of an earthquake or tremor. Earthquakes exert lateral as well as vertical forces, and a structure's response to their random, often sudden motions is a complex task that is just beginning to be understood. Earthquake-resistant structures absorb and dissipate seismically induced motion through a combination of means: damping decreases the amplitude of oscillations of a vibrating structure, while ductile materials (e.g., steel) can withstand considerable inelastic deformation. If a skyscraper has too flexible a structure, then tremendous swaying in its upper floors can develop during an earthquake. Care must be taken to provide built-in tolerance for some structural damage, resist lateral loading through stiffeners (diagonal sway bracing), and allow areas of the building to move somewhat independently.
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