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City (pop., 2002 est.: 575,900), capital of Tajikistan. It lies on the Varzob River in southwestern Tajikistan. It was built in the Soviet period on the site of three former settlements, the largest of which, Dyushambe, was a part of the khanate of Bukhara; the old city suffered severe damage during the Soviet takeover in 1920. In 1924 it became the capital of the new Tajik Autonomous S.S.R., and rapid industrial and population growth followed. An important transport junction, it accounts for much of the country's industrial output.