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Branch of modal logic that studies the permitted, the obligatory, and the forbidden, which are characterized as deontic modalities (Greek, deontos: of that which is binding). It seeks to systematize the abstract, purely conceptual relations between propositions in this sphere, such as the following: If an act is obligatory, then its performance must be permitted and its omission forbidden. In given circumstances, every act is such that either it or its omission is permitted. Modal logic leaves to substantive disciplines such as ethics and law the concrete questions of what specific acts or states of affairs are to be forbidden, permitted, or the like.
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