Principal Muslim sultanate in northern India during the 13th to the 16th centuries. Its creation owed much to the campaigns of Muhammad of Ghur and his lieutenant Qutb al-Din Aybak between 1175 and 1206. During the reign of Sultan Iltutmish (1211–36), a permanent capital was established at Delhi and political ties with Ghur were severed. From 1290 to 1320, under the Khalji dynasty, the sultanate was an imperial power. Its power was shattered by Timur's invasion (1398–99), but it somewhat recovered under the Lodi (Afghan) dynasty (1451–1526). It fell again to Babur (1526), was reestablished briefly, then finally was subsumed into Akbar's Mughal Empire in 1556.
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