Ancient Ionian Greek city, western Anatolia. Located 15 mi (25 km) northwest of the ancient city of Ephesus, it was a flourishing commercial city in the 8th–5th centuries BC, famous for its cavalry, its luxury, and its production of rosin. A member of the Delian League, during the Peloponnesian War it was controlled first by the Persian Achaemenian dynasty and then by Athens, and it was conquered in 302 BC by Macedonia under Alexander the Great. Only a few foundations of the old walled city are now visible.

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